Mamata Banerjee is an Indian politician who serving as the 8th and current Chief Minister of West Bengal since the year 2011. She is the first woman to become the CM of West Bengal and the only serving female CM in India now. She is the founder of the party All India Trinamool Congress which was founded in 1998 after separating from the Indian National Congress, and became its chairperson. In 2011, under his leadership, the Trinamool Congress was able to defeat the 34-year-old Left Front government in West Bengal. This government was the longest-running democratic government in the world. In the Union Cabinet of the Republic of India, she has twice served as Minister of Railways, once as Minister of Coal and once as Minister of State for Human Resource Development, Youth, Sports, Women, and Child Welfare. She agitated against the establishment of special economic zones by forcibly acquiring peasant lands in West Bengal.
In 2012, Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world. Bloomberg Markets ranked her among the 50 most influential people in the world economy in 2012. In 2016, Scotch was named Chief Minister of the Year.
Banerjee in 2019.
|8th Chief Minister of West Bengal|
Assumed office |
20 May 2011
M. K. Narayanan|
D. Y. Patil
Keshari Nath Tripathi
|Preceded by||Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee|
|Member of West Bengal Legislative Assembly|
Assumed office |
28 September 2011
|Preceded by||Subrata Bakshi|
|Chairperson of the All India Trinamool Congress|
Assumed office |
1 January 1998
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Minister of Railways|
22 May 2009 – 19 May 2011
|Prime Minister||Manmohan Singh|
|Preceded by||Lalu Prasad Yadav|
|Succeeded by||Dinesh Trivedi|
13 October 1999 – 15 March 2001
|Prime Minister||Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Preceded by||Ram Naik|
|Succeeded by||Nitish Kumar|
|Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha|
|Preceded by||Biplab Dasgupta|
|Succeeded by||Subrata Bakshi|
|Preceded by||Somnath Chatterjee|
|Succeeded by||Malini Bhattacharya|
|Constituency||Jadavpur, West Bengal|
5 January 1955|
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
|Political party||All India Trinamool Congress (1998–present)|
|Indian National Congress (until 1998)|
|Residence||Kolkata, West Bengal, India|
|Alma mater||University of Calcutta (BA, MA, B.Ed, LLB)|
Early life[edit | hide all | hide | edit source]
Mamata Banerjee was born on 5 January 1955 in the Hajra area of Calcutta to a lower middle-class family. Father Pramileshwar Bandyopadhyay was a freedom fighter. B.A. from Sri Shikshayatan College, Calcutta. After completing the degree, he did his M.A. from Calcutta University. Degree. Later he got LLB from Yogesh Chandra Chowdhury Law College, Kolkata. Degree. Entered politics as a student. After completing his education, he also taught in a primary school for some time to support his family. Mamata Banerjee did not get married.
National Congress politics[edit | hide | edit source]
Mamata Banerjee's political career in the Congress (I) party began at a very young age in the 1980s . She soon became known as the local Congress leader. From 1966 to 1970, she was the General Secretary of the West Bengal Women's Congress (IWC).  In the 1984 Lok Sabha elections , he was elected MP from the Jadavpur Lok Sabha constituency in West Bengal, defeating veteran Communist leader Somnath Chatterjee . At that time he was one of the youngest MPs in the country. During this time he was also nominated as the General Secretary of the All India Youth Congress. He was defeated from his center in the anti-Congress air of 1969. But in the 1991 Lok Sabha elections, Calcutta was the southern Lok Sabha seatRe-elected MP from After 1996 , 1998 , 1999 , 004 , and 009 Lok Sabha elections, he was elected MP from the center.
In 1991, Mamata Banerjee was nominated by the Narasimha Rao cabinet as Minister of State for Human Resource Development , Sports and Youth Welfare and Women and Child Development. He later announced his resignation as Sports Minister in protest of the government's indifference to sports at the Brigade Parade Ground in Kolkata. Her resignation was accepted in 1993. In April 1996, he accused his party of supporting the CPI (M) in West Bengal. Calling himself the only protesting voice in the party, he demanded a "clean Congress". He also threatened to kill himself by wrapping a shawl around his neck at a public meeting in Alipore, Kolkata. In July 1996, he sat in the Lok Sabha in protest of the rise in petroleum prices. It was at this time that Mamata grabbed the collar of Samajwadi Party MP Amar Singh's shirt and got into a scuffle with him. He threw his shawl at the then Railway Minister Rambilas Paswan while presenting the Railway Budget in the Lok Sabha in February 1996 in protest of the deprivation of West Bengal. He later resigned as an MP. But the then Speaker of the Lok Sabha P. A. Sangma rejected his resignation and ordered him to apologize. He later returned with the mediation of Santosh Mohan Deb.
Trinamool Congress[edit | hide | edit source]
In 1996, Mamata Banerjee severed ties with the Congress party and in 1998 she formed the All India Trinamool Congress . Shortly afterwards, his party became the main opposition force in the long- running Left Front- ruled West Bengal. On December 11, 1996, when Samajwadi Party MP Daroga Prasad Saroj went down the Lok Sabha wall to oppose the "Women's Protection Bill", Mamata Banerjee grabbed him by the collar of his shirt and dragged him out of the well. This incident also caused some controversy. In 1999, Mamata joined the BJP- led NDA alliance. When this coalition government was formed, he was nominated as the Railway Minister.
Railway Minister during first tenure[edit | hide | edit source]
In 2000, Mamata Banerjee presented her first railway budget. In this budget he fulfilled many promises to his own state of West Bengal. She launched the bi-weekly New Delhi - Sealdah Rajdhani Express as well as four very important long-distance trains to improve the internal communication system of West Bengal. These are Howrah - Purulia Express, Sealdah - New Jalpaiguri Express, Shalimar - Bankura Express and Sealdah - Amritsar Superfast Express (weekly). He is also from Pune- Increased the number of days of Howrah Azad Hind Express and expanded the service of three express trains. Significant progress was made in the Howrah- Digha rail project during his short tenure.
During this time he also focused on tourism development. He introduced two new locomotives at the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway and proposed the establishment of the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited. He also called on India to take necessary steps for the construction of the Trans-Asian Railway and reopen the closed lines with Bangladesh and Nepal. In the financial year 2000-2001, he launched a total of 19 new trains.
After leaving the NDA[edit | hide | edit source]
Mamata Banerjee temporarily severed ties with the NDA in early 2001 after a political rift. In the 2001 West Bengal Assembly elections, his party allied with the National Congress. However, this alliance of services was unable to defeat the Left Front. He returned to the NDA in January 2004 and took charge of the Ministry of Coal and Mines . In the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, Mamata Banerjee was the only Trinamool MP elected from West Bengal.
On October 20, 2005, Mamata opposed the industrial policy of the Buddhadeb Bhattacharya government in West Bengal. When Beni Santoso, owner of the Indonesia -based Salim Group, came to invest in West Bengal, the government offered him an agricultural land to set up a factory in Howrah. After that, protests accumulated in the state. Mamata and her supporters gathered in front of the Taj Hotel to protest the arrival of Santoso amid heavy rains. When police removed them, they later chased the Santoso convoy. Note that the government postponed Santoso's program by three hours to avoid the black flag display program.
In 2005, Mamata Banerjee fell into a severe political crisis. This year's team pauranirbacane Kolkata Municipal Corporation loses power. Subrata Mukherjee, the then metropolitan of Calcutta, left the Trinamool Congress and joined the National Congress. The Trinamool Congress also faced a major setback in the 2008 West Bengal Assembly elections. The party lost half of the seats it won in the previous election.
On August 4, 2008, after the then Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Somnath Chattopadhyay, rejected a pending motion, Mamata sent her resignation letter to the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Charanjit Singh Atwal. The pending motion was raised against illegal Bangladeshi infiltration in West Bengal. But the principal rejected it as he did not follow the proper rules for raising the pending proposal.
In November 2008, he was forcibly barred from attending a rally against the Tata Nano project in Singur. Mamata appeared in the West Bengal Legislative Assembly to protest. He called a press conference in the assembly and announced a 12-hour Bangla Bandh. Trinamool Congress legislators vandalized the assembly, blocked roads and set fire to vehicles in many places. This was followed by a massive strike on December 14, 2006.
Nandigram massacre[edit | hide | edit source]
When the West Bengal government wanted to set up a chemical hub at Nandigram in East Midnapore , the Haldia Development Board, headed by Tamluk MP Laxman Seth, issued a notice to acquire land in the area. The Trinamool Congress opposes it. The Chief Minister declared the notice null and void. On March 14, 2006, fourteen people were killed when police opened fire on farmers during a six-month blockade. The Trinamool Congress-led the local peasant movement against the government. Many people were then displaced by the political conflict. In protest of the Nandigram genocide, a large section of Calcutta intellectuals joined the movement against the Left Front government. In a letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and then Home Minister Shivraj Patil, Mamata Banerjee accused the CPI (M) of inciting state terrorism in Nandigram. The movement forced the government to suspend the Nandigram Chemical Hub project. But by leading the peasant movement, Mamata was able to gain immense popularity. The Nandigram movement's message of opposition to industry and protection of the environment on fertile agricultural land spread throughout the country.
2009 electoral success[edit | hide | edit source]
The Trinamool Congress did very well in the 2009 Lok Sabha elections. Out of 42 Lok Sabha seats in West Bengal, the Trinamool Congress alone won 19 seats. Trinamool ally National Congress won 6 seats and SUCI (C) won one seat. The Trinamool Congress alliance won a total of 26 seats. The Left Front, on the other hand, won 15 seats and the BJP one. Out of 19 Trinamool Congress MPs, five are women MPs. The Trinamool Congress is a strong supporter of the Women's Protection Bill in India. In the 2009 Lok Sabha elections, the opposition defeated the first ruling party in the state's 33-year history of Left Front rule. Earlier, after the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984, the state's opposition had the best results. But the number of seats they got in the service was only 14.
Railway Minister for the second term[edit | hide | edit source]
In 2009, Mamata Banerjee became the Railway Minister for the second time. In this year's railway budget, he announced various new initiatives of the Ministry of Railways. He decided to upgrade 50 stations of the country to world-class stations with international facilities. It was also decided to work on this development in the public-private partnership model. He also declared 365 stations as standard stations. Markets, Food Stalls & Restaurants, Book Stalls, PCO / STD / ISD / Fax Booths, Drug Stores & Stationery Stores For Important Passenger Use, It was decided to set up a multi-functional complex with low cost hotels and underground parking facilities. It has also been announced that these complexes will be formed in public-private partnerships. It was also decided to give scholarships to the daughters of Railway Group D employees for their higher education to increase their self-reliance. Mamata Banerjee also proposed the establishment of seven nursing colleges on railway land. He also launched two new trains, The Youth Express and the Durant Express . Durant is currently the fastest train service in India.
For the convenience of female commuters, on 19 July 2009, Mamata launched a ladies special train at Howrah - Bandel branch. Later, women's special trains were launched at multiple branches across the country, such as Sealdah - Kalyani, Panvel - Mumbai CST. On 18 September, the first Duronto Express was launched between Sealdah and New Delhi. The second Duronto Express between Chennai and New Delhi was launched on 21 September. Mamata also focused on the expansion of railways in terror-stricken Kashmir. The Anantnag-Kadigand railway was launched in October. On February 8, 2010, Mamata launched nineteen new rail services.
2011 Assembly elections and formed a government victory[edit | hide | edit source]
In the 2011 West Bengal Assembly elections, the Trinamool Congress, led by Mamata Banerjee, contested jointly with the Indian National Congress, overthrowing the 34-year-old Left Front government and winning 226 seats (164 seats alone) to form the government. Mamata Banerjee was sworn in as the Chief Minister of West Bengal.
The success of 2014 Lok Sabha elections[edit | hide | edit source]
In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections in India, the Trinamool Congress led by Mamata Banerjee single-handedly won 34 Lok Sabha seats in West Bengal.
2016 Assembly elections to win[edit | hide | edit source]
In the 2016 West Bengal Assembly elections, the Trinamool Congress alone won 211 seats (out of a total of 294 seats) to form the government. Trinamool Congress chief Mamata Banerjee was re-sworn in as West Bengal Chief Minister.
Popular culture[edit | hide | edit source]
A film titled Baghini has been made based on the biography of Mamata Banerjee, which was released on May 3, 2019.
On 18 September 2012, Mamata Banerjee withdrew support from the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), the central government of India, due to clashes over other issues, including foreign direct investment.
References[edit | hide | edit source]
- "Jagdeep Dhankar To Be Sworn In As New West Bengal Governor On July 30". NDTV. 26 July 2019.
- "Mamata Banerjee's Biodata in Lok Sabha's Document". loksabha.nic.in. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012.